Fundamental aspects of networking

Networking fundamentals are switches, routers, and wireless access points. Through them, devices connected to your network. It can communicate with one another and with other networks, like the Internet.

Two fundamental aspects:

Networking fundamentals a computer network is built with two basic blocks: nodes or network devices and links. The links connect two or more nodes with each other. The way these links carry the information is defined by communication protocols.

What is a computer network?

A computer network comprises two or more computers that are connected either by cables wired. WiFi with the purpose of transmitting, exchanging, or sharing data and resources. You build a computer network using hardware e.g., routers, switches, access points, and cables and software e.g., operating systems or business applications.

Geographic location often defines a computer network. For example, a LAN (local area network) connects computers in a defined physical space, like an office building, whereas a WAN (wide area network) can connect computers across continents. The internet is the largest example of a WAN, connecting billions of computers worldwide.

Computer network types:

As Networking fundamentals so did the computer network types that serve those needs. Here are the most common and widely used computer network types:

Network Types :

  • LAN (local area network): A LAN connects computers over a relatively short distance, allowing them to share data, files, and resources. For example, a LAN may connect all the computers in an office building, school, or hospital. Typically, LANs are privately owned and managed
  • WLAN (wireless local area network): A WLAN is just like a LAN but connections between devices on the network are made wirelessly
  • WAN (wide area network): As the name implies, a WAN connects computers over a wide area, such as from region to region or even continent to continent. The internet is the largest WAN, connecting billions of computers worldwide. You will typically see collective or distributed ownership models for WAN management
  • MAN (metropolitan area network): MANs are typically larger than LANs but smaller than WANs. Cities and government entities typically own and manage MANs
  • PAN (personal area network): A PAN serves one person. For example, if you have an iPhone and a Mac, it’s very likely you’ve set up a PAN that shares and syncs content text messages, emails, photos, and more across both devices
  • SAN (storage area network): A SAN is a specialized network that provides access to block-level storage shared network or cloud storage that, to the user, looks and works like a storage drive that’s physically attached to a computer.
  • CAN (campus area network): A CAN is also known as a corporate area network. A CAN is larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN. CANs serve sites such as colleges, universities, and business campuses
  • VPN (virtual private network): A VPN is a secure, point-to-point connection between two network end points (see ‘nodes’ below). A VPN establishes an encrypted channel that keeps a user’s identity and access credentials, as well as any data transferred, inaccessible to hackers

Important terms and concepts:

The following are some common terms to know when discussing computer Networking fundamentals:

You can further define a computer network by the protocols it uses to communicate, the physical arrangement of its components, how it controls traffic, and its purpose.

Computer networks enable communication for every business, entertainment, and research purpose. The internet, online search, email, audio and video sharing, online commerce, live-streaming, and social networks all exist because of computer networks.

What is Ip address and Nodes?

IP address: is a unique number assigned to every device connected to a network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. Each IP address identifies the device’s host network and the location of the device on the host network.
When one device sends data to another, the data includes a ‘header’ that includes the IP address of the sending device and the IP address of the destination device

Nodes: is a connection point inside a network that can receive, send, create, or store data. Each node requires you to provide some form of identification to receive access, like an IP address.
A few examples of nodes include computers, printers, modems, bridges, and switches. A node is essentially any network device that can recognize, process, and transmit information to any other network node.

What is Ports and Network cable types?

Ports:  Identifies a specific connection between network devices. If you think of an IP address as comparable to the address of a hotel, then ports are the suites or room numbers within that hotel.
Computers use port numbers to determine which application, service, or process should receive specific messages

Network cable types:Examples for cable type is  ethernet twisted pair, coaxial, and fiber optic. The choice of cable type depends on the size of the network, the arrangement of network elements, and the physical distance between devices

What is Network device ?

Routers: A router is a physical or virtual device that sends information contained in data packets between networksRouters analyze data within the packets to determine the best way for the information to reach its ultimate destination. Routers forward data packets until they reach their destination node

 Switches: A device that connects other devices and manages node-to-node communication within a network, ensuring data packets reach their ultimate destination. Below we can see switching techniques
While a router sends information between networks, a switch sends information between nodes in a single network. The three main types of switching are as follows:
    • Circuit switching, which establishes a dedicated communication path between nodes in a network. This dedicated path assures the full bandwidth is available during the transmission, meaning no other traffic can travel along that path Packet switching involves breaking down data into independent components called packets which, because of their small size, make fewer demands on the network. The packets travel through the network to their end destination
    • Message switching sends a message in its entirety from the source node, traveling from switch to switch until it reaches its destination node

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